Purification and structural determination of nontoxic lipid A obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella typhimurium.


Endotoxin extracted from the heptose-less mutant of Salmonella typhimurium was hydrolyzed in 0.1 N HCl in methanol/water (1:1, v/v) at 100 degrees C to yield lipid A, which was then fractionated on a Sephadex LH-20 column to yield a major monophosphoryl lipid A fraction. The monophosphoryl lipid A was further fractionated by preparative thin layer chromatography. This process yielded three major bands (TLC-1, -3, and -5) and two minor bands (TLC-7 and -9). The purity of these fractions was established by ion exchange and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The thin layer fractions were analyzed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. TLC-1 and -3 gave molecular ions (M-H)- at m/e 1730 and 1716, respectively. Both of these fractions contained beta-hydroxymyristic, lauric, and 3-myristoxymyristic acids in O-acyl linkages. The molecular formula and Mr of TLC-1 are C95H179O22N2P and 1731.16; those of TLC-3 are C94H177O22N2P and 1717.15. TLC-1 was a methyl homolog of TLC-3. The major component of TLC-5 (C80H151O22N2P and Mr = 1506.99) gave a molecular ion at m/e 1506 and contained two beta-hydroxymyristic acids and a lauric acid in the O-acyl linkages. The major component of TLC-7 (C66H125O19N2P and Mr = 1280.83) and the single component of TLC-9 gave molecular ions at m/e 1280 and 1098, respectively. TLC-7 contained lauric and beta-hydroxymyristic acids in the O-acyl linkages. TLC-9 (C54H103O18N2P and Mr = 1098.69) contained a single O-acylated beta-hydroxymyristate group. TLC-1 and -3 were nontoxic in the chick embryo lethality test and regressed established tumors in the syngeneic guinea pigs.

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