Passive immunization against oral AIDS virus transmission: An approach to prevent mother‐to‐infant HIV‐1 transmission?
To develop immunoprophylaxis regimens against mother‐to‐child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) transmission, we established a simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model in neonatal macaques that mimics intrapartum mucosal virus exposure (T.W. Baba, J. Koch, E.S. Mittler et al.: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10:351–357, 1994). We protected four neonates from oral SHIV‐vpu+ challenge by ante‐ and postpartum treatment with a synergistic triple combination of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 human anti‐HIV‐1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (T.W. Baba, V. Liska, R. Hofmann‐Lehmann et al.: Nature Med 6:200–206, 2000), which recognize the CD4‐binding site of Env, a glycosylation‐dependent gp120, or a linear gp41 epitope. Two neonates that received only postpartum mAbs were also protected from oral SHIV‐vpu+ challenge, indicating that postpartum treatment alone is sufficient. Next, we evaluated a similar mAb combination against SHIV89.6P, which encodes env of primary HIV89.6. One of four mAb‐treated neonates was protected from infection and two maintained normal CD4+ T‐cell counts. We conclude that the epitopes recognized by the three mAbs are important determinants for achieving protection. Combination immunoprophylaxis with synergistic mAbs seems promising to prevent maternal HIV‐1 transmission in humans.
Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 17
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